Microbial Community Stratification Linked to Utilization of Carbohydrates and Phosphorus Limitation in a Boreal Peatland at Marcell Experimental Forest, Minnesota, USA

TitleMicrobial Community Stratification Linked to Utilization of Carbohydrates and Phosphorus Limitation in a Boreal Peatland at Marcell Experimental Forest, Minnesota, USA
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsLin X., Tfaily M.M, Steinweg J.M, Chanton P., Esson K., Yang Z.K, Chanton J.P, Cooper W., Schadt C.W, Kostka J.E
JournalApplied and Environmental Microbiology
Volume80
Issue11
Pagination3518 - 3530
Date PublishedJan-06-2014
ISSN0099-2240
Abstract

This study investigated the abundance, distribution, and composition of microbial communities at the watershed scale in a boreal peatland within the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF), Minnesota, USA. Through a close coupling of next-generation sequencing, biogeochemistry, and advanced analytical chemistry, a biogeochemical hot spot was revealed in the mesotelm (30- to 50-cm depth) as a pronounced shift in microbial community composition in parallel with elevated peat decomposition. The relative abundance of Acidobacteria and the Syntrophobacteraceae, including known hydrocarbon-utilizing genera, was positively correlated with carbohydrate and organic acid content, showing a maximum in the mesotelm. The abundance of Archaea (primarily crenarchaeal groups 1.1c and 1.3) increased with depth, reaching up to 60% of total small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences in the deep peat below the 75-cm depth. Stable isotope geochemistry and potential rates of methane production paralleled vertical changes in methanogen community composition to indicate a predominance of acetoclastic methanogenesis mediated by the Methanosarcinalesin the mesotelm, while hydrogen-utilizing methanogens predominated in the deeper catotelm. RNA-derived pyrosequence libraries corroborated DNA sequence data to indicate that the above-mentioned microbial groups are metabolically active in the mid-depth zone. Fungi showed a maximum in rRNA gene abundance above the 30-cm depth, which comprised only an average of 0.1% of total bacterial and archaeal rRNA gene abundance, indicating prokaryotic dominance. Ratios of C to P enzyme activities approached 0.5 at the acrotelm and catotelm, indicating phosphorus limitation. In contrast, P limitation pressure appeared to be relieved in the mesotelm, likely due to P solubilization by microbial production of organic acids and C-P lyases. Based on path analysis and the modeling of community spatial turnover, we hypothesize that P limitation outweighs N limitation at MEF, and microbial communities are structured by the dominant shrub, Chamaedaphne calyculata, which may act as a carbon source for major consumers in the peatland.

URLhttp://aem.asm.org/cgi/doi/10.1128/AEM.00205-14
DOI10.1128/AEM.00205-14
Short TitleApplied and Environmental Microbiology